Common Access Protocols:
Ethernet II: Digital/Intel/Xerox standard (also promulgated by IEEE); probably the most common,
Even though there are no standards explicitly promulgated, EthernetII has been extended to fast and gigabit standards
802.3: International Ethernet Standard
Cat 3 UTP cable
802.3u: Fast (100Mbps) E'net
Cat 5 UTP cable
802.3z: Gigabit (1000 Mbps) E'net (mostly over fiber, 1000BASE-CX specifies short-haul copper for wiring closets)
802.3ab: Gigabit (1000 Mbps) E'net over UTP wire (various 1000BASE-T standards)
Cat 5e, Cat 6, or Cat 7 See:
802.5: Standardized Token Ring
802.11: Wireless at a maximum of 2 Mbps
802.11a: Wireless at a maximum od 54 Mbps for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
802.11b: Wireless at a maximum of 11 Mbps
802.12: VG-AnyLAN: HP-fostered standard, never widely implemented
FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface, 100 Mbps token-passing standard, formerrly widely used for corporate backbone
Uses primarily fiber-optic cable (longer distances for campus backbone), dual counter-rotating ring topology, automatic ring repair for single failures
Stations on either side of a failure detect it and wrap the signal back on the other ring
MAC addresses:  A six-byte address assigned to every node on the network
First three bytes administered by IEEE and assigned for a fee to a vendor
Second three bytes administered by vendor and assigned sequentially to devices as manufactured
Entire MAC address is "burned into" a ROM on the device, the "burned-in address" or BIA
See the following for MAC identifier tools:
Note that large enterprise devices may have a block of MAC addresses assigned to it
This block may be over a thousand addresses in size
Special cases about the MAC address of the network interface card (NIC):
Group/Individual bit First bit in the MAC address when it appears on the wire, allows multiple NICs to receive the same frame
Global/Local bit Second bit of the MAC address when it appears on the wire, identifies whether the administrator has modified the MAC,
mostly token ring, however, see broadcast below
Unicast One station sends a packet to another single station
Multicast One station sends a packet to multiple other stations, E'net MAC starts with 01-00-5E,
  last three bytes of M'cast MAC derived from special m'cast address
Broadcast One station sends a packet to all other stations on the wire, MAC = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
  a special case of the m'cast frame (all bits are 1, so bit 1 must be set, so it is an m'cast frame)
Canonical/non-Canonical representation:
Canonical representation the least-significant bit of each byte goes onto the wire first (little-endian)
non-Canonical representation the most significant bit of each byte goes onto the wire first (big-endian)